harmonia axyridis pupa
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) found in Newfoundland. Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin on the beneficial predator Harmonia axyridis (multicoloured Asian ladybeetle). Parrella G, Varricchio M L, Giorgini M, 2015. New record of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis in Afrotropical Region: Tanzania, Zanzibar. Indeed in England it is not uncommon to see thelarvae of H. axyridis feeding and subsequently pupating throughout November. Harmonia axyridis ladybug invasion and allergy. Adalia bipunctata (twospotted lady beetle), Chilocorus stigma (twicestabbed lady beetle), Coccinella transversoguttata (lady beetle, transverse). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 93(1):912 pp, Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Influence of ground cover on beneficial arthropods in pecan. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(1):83-93, Michaud JP, 2003. Roy HE, Wajnberg E. (eds) 2008. (1989), which includes six subfamilies within the Coccinellidae. Larval characters of Asian Species of the Genus Harmonia Mulsant. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Since then, it has rapidly invaded most of North America and Europe, and it is now spreading in other regions such as South America and South Africa. 6 (3), 465-466. However, initial introductions of H. axyridis to USA agroecosystems failed to establish until 1988, when populations were found in Louisiana (Chapin and Brou, 1991). http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Fan YH, Yang SY, 1983. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); typical adult of f. succinea. Vegetation of the WK Kellogg Biological Station. Zelf is hij daarvoor immuun, maar voor het zevenstippelig lieveheersbeestje zijn de schimmels dodelijk.. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida: a preliminary report. (2008) predict that H. axyridis may establish in most of Europe as well as in many temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. The pronotum is broader than it is long and extends forward at the margins. Effects of a larval antipredator response and larval diet on adult phenotype in an aposematic ladybird beetle. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Cornell Cooperative Extension - Insect Diagnostic Laboratory fact sheets, http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Extension/DiagnosticLab/IDLFS, Koch RL, 2003. 15 (6), 12-13. Insecticide use inside buildings is usually not advised. Firstly, the impact of H. axyridis on native biodiversity needs to be better assessed in long term studies, and the mechanisms underlying this impact should be better understood. An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control. Determination of hibernation site in the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Florida Entomologist, 84(4):608-612, Michaud JP, 2001. H. axyridis was favoured for the biological control of aphids because of its size, diverse dietary range, efficiency as a predator and wide niche colonization ability. Los escarabajos adultos miden 4.9-8.2 mm de largo y 4.0-6.6 de ancho; de cuerpo ovalado y ligeramente convexo. The first state record for the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), from Montana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 89(1):47-55; 34 ref, Pickering GJ, Ker K, Soleas GJ, 2007. (2001) attributed the success of the former to its higher attack rates and greater escape ability. Social feeding in ladybird beetles: adaptive significance and mechanism. (Organizmy pożyteczne związane ze szkodnikami roślin ozdobnych.). The body is moderately convex, shortened, oval and approximately 4/5 wide as long. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus. In temperate regions, the egg stage will take 4-5 days, the larval stage takes approximately 3 weeks and the pupal stage takes 1 week. Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America. Recently concerns have been raised that both H. axyridis and C. septempunctata cause such problems to the wine industry in North America (Botezatu et al., 2013).Both H. axyridis and C. septempunctata contribute alkyl methoxypyrazines, and particularly isopropyl methoxypyrazine, to wine at concentrations that are considered to have a negative impact on wine quality (Botezatu et al., 2013). These very traits now contribute to the invasive nature of this beetle. El-Sebaey and El-Gantiry (1999) noted a red spot located medially on the sixth abdominal segment of the first instar. First record of the harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis Pallas) in Hungary (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Coccinella (Passau), 2:4-6, Galvan TL, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD, 2006. H. axyridis are difficult to separate from the grapes and so are processed with the grapes to make wine. BioControl. Het veelkleurig Aziatisch lieveheersbeestje is inmiddels in Europa ingeburgerd geraakt. Fitness of two phenotypes of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); orange and red forms may be patterned with anything from 0 to 21 black spots (f. succinea complex), or may display a grid-like black pattern (f. axyridis). Antenna, 29, 196-208, Majerus TMO, Majerus MEN, Knowles B, Wheeler J, Bertrand D, Kuznetzov VN, Ueno H, Hurst GDD, 1998. Changes in a lady beetle community following the establishment of three alien species. H. axyridis has been used as a classical biological control agent of aphids and coccids in North America and Europe. Establishment of Harmonia axyridis on citrus and some data on its phenology in Greece. 37 (3), 145-149. http://rcia.uc.cl/English/pdf/37-3/13_GREZ_37-3.pdf. The spread and increase of H. axyridis may therefore prove to be beneficial to crop systems through a reduction in aphid numbers below economically damaging levels and thus an associated reduction in the use of chemical pesticides (Koch and Galvan, 2008). On intra-guild predation and cannibalism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Solano Y, Arcaya E, 2014. most pyrethroids, have a pre-harvest interval of several weeks whereas, to be efficient, treatments should be applied within a week before harvest (Galvan et al., 2006). Parrella G, Varricchio ML, Giorgini M, 2015. Baltic Journal of Coleopterology. Coleopterists Bulletin. Orange and red forms may be patterned with anything from 0 to 21 black spots (f. succinea complex). Neotropical Entomology. Genetics, 31:195-210, Tanagishi K, 1976. http://www.vegedge.umn.edu/vegpest/Harmonia/Harmonia.htm, Koch RL, Hutchison WD, 2003. One of the limiting factors of using insecticides is that many of them, e.g. Life history and biological properties. Intra- versus inter-specific interactions in starving ladybird beetles predaceous on aphids. Ladybirds. 295-309. Evolution in biocontrol strains: insight from the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis. Scientia Agraria. Information on the global distribution of H. axyridis is far from comprehensive; however, there is a high probability that it occurs widely, mainly through intentional introductions coupled with natural dispersal. This is problematic to orchard crops and vineyards in particular. Potential for intraguild predation and competition among predatory Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae. Environmental Entomology, 41(5):1169-1176. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/2012/00000041/00000005/art00017, Goetz DW, 2008. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University - Agricultural Science, 20(4):346-347, Sun XQ, Chen WL, Chen ZB, He JL, Ye WJ, 1996. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 71(2):159-163, Day WH, Prokrym DR, Ellis DR, Chianese RJ, 1994. Occurrence and contribution of alkyl methoxypyrazines in wine tainted by. In its native region, it is found in the same habitat, but the status is natural and productive/non-natural (M Kenis, CABI, personal communication, 2008). H. axyridis, a species of Asian origin, has been used as a biological control agent against aphids worldwide. Rezende M Q, Campos J L A, Coelho L M B, Santana D L Q, 2010. Pp. Responses of two ladybeetles to eight fungicides used in Florida citrus: implications for biological control. it is a human commensal), Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant, Difficult to identify/detect in the field. The Hague, Holland: Dr W Junk N V Publishers, 70-76, Hodek I, 1996. Networking: a community approach to invaders and their parasites. H. axyridis is a member of the Coccinellidae family within the Coleoptera. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Adventive lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Canadian maritime provinces, with new eastern U.S. records of Harmonia quadripunctata. Black or melanic forms usually have two (f. conspicua) or four (f. spectabilis) large orange or red spots. The occurrence of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Canada. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 19(3):941-944, Alyokhin A, Sewell G, 2004. The Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, as biological control agents: I. Predacious behavior and feeding ability. Biological Control, 28:265-270, Koch RL, Venette RC, Hutchison WD, 2006. Brown and Miller (1998) found that the abundance of native coccinellids in apple (Malus domestica) orchards in West Virginia decreased over a 13-year period following the establishment of both Coccinella septempunctata (an introduced species in the USA) and H. axyridis. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Zashchita Rastenii. Dobzhansky T, 1933. The Far-Eastern ladybird against the apple aphid. in the UK) (M Kenis, CABI, personal communication, 2008). Harmonia axyridis is holometabolous, progressing from egg through four larval instars, to pupa and then adult. Ecological Entomology, 40(4):336-348. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2311, Roy HE, Cottrell TE, 2008. Növényvédelem, 44(5):239-242, Michaud JP, 1999. Majerus (1994) reports that in predatory interactions between coccinellid larvae it is generally the larger that eats the smaller, as long as both are mobile, therefore the large size of H. axyridis compared to many coccinellids may also contribute to its competitive advantage. http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/pdf/1756-3305-5-218.pdf, Poutsma J, Loomans AJM, Aukema B, Heijerman T, 2008. Other species of ladybird (such as Adalia bipunctata), which also use buildings for overwintering, may be adversely affected by such control measures. Effect of size, extraguild prey and habitat complexity on intraguild interactions: a case study with the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis and the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. There is uncertainty surrounding the origin of these populations and whether they resulted from intentionally released beetles or accidental introductions (Day et al., 1994; Tedders and Schaefer, 1994). (Ocorrência de coccinelídeos predadores em pomares de nectarina no município de Araucária, Paraná.). This is adaptive because darker colours absorb more heat allowing faster adult development and earlier eclosion in cool conditions (Hodek, 1958; Majerus, 1994; Michie et al., 2011). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 76(3):177-182, Roy HE, Adriaens T, Isaac NJB, Kenis M, Onkelinx T, San Martin G, Brown PMJ, Hautier L, Poland R, Roy DB, Comont R, Eschen R, Frost R, Zindel R, Vlaenderen Jvan, Nedved O, Ravn HP, Grégoire J, Biseau JCde, Maes D, 2012. Journal of Insect Behavior, 14(3):373-384; 32 ref, Yasuda H, Ohnuma N, 1999. The large aggregations of H. axyridis formed during the autumn and winter in buildings are regarded as a nuisance because of the propensity to swarm, and associated implications. There are indications that sulphur dioxide (in the form of potassium metabisulphite) a commonly used antimicrobial and antioxidant in wine production, repels H. axyridis from grape vines (Glemser et al., 2012). 58:51-55, Sasaji H, 1971. Some people have reported allergic reactions to H. axyridis (Goetz, 2008) and others have complained of experiencing bites (Koch, 2003). New occurrences of the alien invasive species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) in Southern Italy (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). In Japan, it has been reported that H. axyridis repeatedly arrived in lucerne (Medicago sativa) fields a short time after a number of other ladybirds, allowing H. axyridis to feed on the prepupae and pupae of other coccinellids (Takahashi, 1989). Galvan et al. In the late autumn, H. axyridis migrate to overwintering sites and form spectacular aggregations. H. axyridis is within the subfamily Coccinellinae. First record of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae): a lady beetle native to the Palaearctic region. H. axyridis can also directly impact on humans through its aggregation behaviour. H. axyridis c value = 0.34 (Gregory et al., 2003). Genetical study of the lady-bird beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas Rep. II. Invasion history, habitat preferences and phenology of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis in Belgium. It is not yet known whether H. axyridis in other parts of the world harbour male-killers. This ability to exploit a diverse range of habitats suggests that H. axyridis has the potential to spread and invade a wide range of ecosystems. The known distribution of the predator Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the United States, and thoughts on the origin of this species and five other exotic lady beetles in eastern North America. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 85(2):151-159; 49 ref, Luo HH, 1987. , Het veelkleurig Aziatisch lieveheersbeestje is een agressieve predator en bij gebrek aan luizen worden ook larven van andere soorten lieveheersbeestjes, rupsen en vlindereitjes opgegeten, waardoor de kever een bedreiging vormt voor de inheemse soorten. H. axyridis can now be found in all USA states except for Montana, Wyoming and parts of the south-western USA; it is also established in South America (de Almeida and da Silva, 2002) and South Africa (Stals and Prinsloo, 2007). BioControl, 56(6):871-882. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853, Insectarium de Montreal, 2006. http://www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/insectarium/toile/nouveau/preview.php?section=fiches&page=4, Jeffries DL, Chapman J, Roy HE, Humphries S, Harrington R, Brown PMJ, Handley LJL, 2013. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Manitoba. Environmental Entomology, 31:827-835, Michaud JP, 2002. Such temperatures are similar to the range that H. axyridis will experience in temperate regions and so it is unlikely that climatic factors will prevent the spread of H. axyridis. Dortrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hoebeke ER, Wheeler AGJr, 1996. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Found on imported flowers from the Netherlands to UK, Populations in Europe are thought to originate, at least partly, from specimens used for biocontrol, Intercepted in Norway on horticultural plants from the Netherlands, For example found on timber imported into Norway from the USA, It has been suggested that some individuals were incidentally introduced in tourist luggage, Found on imported excavation equipment in Australia, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches, Competition - monopolizing resources; Predation, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Although in favourable conditions it can be multivoltine and up to four or five generations per year have been observed (Wang, 1986; Katsoyannos et al., 1997). Only the sudden adaptation of a natural enemy of native ladybirds or the importation of a natural enemy from the area of origin of H. axyridis may ultimately lower population densities (Kenis et al., 2008). DOI:10.15560/6.3.465. Some species of coccinellid are highly conserved in colour form whereas others are highly polymorphic. The wide latitudinal and longitudinal range of H. axyridis in Asia (native range) shows that it can develop and breed in both warm and cool climes. Spread of Harlequin Ladybird (Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Hungary, and the first records from Romania and Ukraine. Key components of an integrated pest management strategy against H. axyridis in vineyards include proper surveys for beetle densities before harvest and the determination of a threshold density, to assist in management decisions. Insect Gallery., http://kohiyama.wem.sfc.keio.ac.jp/eng/insect_e/adventure/011.html. 97-126. Predominant natural enemy insects in soybean field in northeast China. BioControl, 44(3):347-367, Michaud JP, 2000. Molecular Ecology, 12(2):493-504, Foley IA, Ivie MA, Denke PM, 2009. Based on climate matching models, Poutsma et al. Relative toxicity of six insecticides to Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Hibernation of the lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis. In: Ellenberg J, Hokkanen HMT (eds). It is interesting to note that the dark forms (such as f. spectabilis and f. conspicua) are common in parts of Asia (native range), but rare in the USA where the succinea complex of forms occurs (Hodek and Honek, 1996). Coleopterists Bulletin, 64(1):50. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue, Hironori Y, Katsuhiro S, 1997. Wine Spectator, 15 May, 16, Elliott N, Kieckhefer R, Kauffman W, 1996. Effect of size, extraguild prey and habitat complexity on intraguild interactions: a case study with the invasive ladybird, http://www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/insectarium/toile/nouveau/preview.php?section=fiches&page=4, http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Extension/DiagnosticLab/IDLFS, Koch RL, Galvan TL, 2008. Despite this, a number of predators, parasitoids and pathogens attack these ladybirds. Onychium, No.12:137-139, Merkl O, 2008. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); larva feeding on an aphid. The multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): orientation to aggregation sites. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Biological Control, 6(2):232-237, Lamana ML, Miller JC, 1998. H. axyridis has a long history of introductions as a biological control agent of coccids and aphids around the world. This fungus has subsequently been found on H. axyridis adults in London (UK) However, the impact of the fungus is unclear. Role of predators in regulation of endemic populations of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in Japan. Beneficial organisms associated with ornamental pests. African Entomology, 24(1):247-249. http://www.bioone.org/loi/afen, Obata S, 1986. This prolonged breeding confirms the continual breeding of the species if food is available and temperatures are not too low. H. axyridis can now be found in all USA states except for Montana, Wyoming and parts of south-western USA; it was also intentionally introduced in Argentina in the late 1990s and became subsequently established in Argentina and Brazil (de Almeida and da Silva, 2002; Koch et al., 2006). 103 (3/4), 123-126. http://www.sajs.co.za. 4 (4), 37-39. In the UK, H. axyridis f. succinea is the dominant colour form (Majerus et al., 2005). Although the transmission of this fungus to ladybirds is poorly understood, it is thought to infect ladybirds overwintering in leaf litter with close contact to the soil, and so is unlikely to affect H. axyridis significantly because these ladybirds favour elevated positions for overwintering. Flights to winter dormancy sites may start as early as late August in Siberia; however, most take place from late September through to late November (Liu and Qin, 1989; Sakurai et al., 1993). Baltic Journal of Coleopterology, 9(2):135-138. http://bjc.sggw.waw.pl, Ben Halima Kamel, M., Mdellel, L., Zouari, S., Adouani, R., 2018. H. axyridis adults spend the adverse winter months in a state of dormancy in large aggregations, often on prominent, light-coloured objects such as rocky outcrops of mountains or light-coloured buildings (Tanagishi, 1976; Obata, 1986). From a survey of pupae collected in London, UK, during autumn (October and November, 2004) it was apparent that the majority were very heavily spotted, and subsequent breeding experiments using these beetles showed that their large, fused spots were not inherited, indicating an environmental cause (Majerus and Roy, 2006). Merkl O, 2008. CABI is a registered EU trademark. The beetles may be more likely to leave the grapes during day harvesting rather than during night harvesting. However, extrapolating findings from laboratory studies to the field is challenging and many questions remain with respect to the ecological relevance of intraguild predation. Coccinellids in cotton:population response to pesticide application and feeding response to cotton aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae). It is apparent that H. axyridis is one of the top predators within the guilds of aphidophages and coccidophages and it will survive on a varied diet with the potential to engage in intra-guild predation, including other species of ladybird (Yasuda and Ohnuma, 1999; Ware and Majerus, 2008; Ware et al., 2008). Arrival, establishment, and habitat use of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in a Michigan landscape. It does not appear to affect survival, but heavy infections may impede flight, foraging and mating. Het insect werd als biologische bestrijding van bladluizen ingevoerd in België. The potential threat that H. axyridis poses to wildlife is more worrying than its impacts on crops. Bad side of a good beetle: the North American experience with Harmonia axyridis. Key papers from the symposium "Indirect ecological effects in biological control", Montpellier, France, 17-20 October 1999, 99-125; 26 ref, Magnan EM, Sanchez H, Luskin AT, Bush RK, 2002. Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College, 12(2):119-124, Hemptinne JL, Gaudin M, Dixon AFG, Lognay G, 2000. Ecology of Coccinellidae. In: Ellenberg J, Hokkanen HMT (eds). H. axyridis has been designated as a pest of orchard crops (apples, Malus domestica and pears, Pyrus communis) because, as aphids become scarce in the late summer and autumn, H. axyridis feed on soft fruit causing blemishing and an associated reduction in market value (Koch, 2003). It was taken to the USA in 1916 and numerous Tayeh A, Estoup A, Laugier G, Loiseau A, Turgeon J, Toepfer S, Facon B, 2012. Zashchita Rastenii, 15(6):12-13, Seo M-J, Youn Y-N, 2000. Functional Ecology, 26(6):1238-1248. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2435, Roy HE, Handley LJL, Schönrogge K, Poland RL, Purse BV, 2011. Environmental Entomology, 27(6):1574-1580, Comont RF, Purse BV, Phillips W, Kunin WE, Hanson M, Lewis OT, Harrington R, Shortall CR, Rondoni G, Roy HE, 2014. In: Onychium. As insect prey become scarce in the autumn, adult H. axyridis begin to aggregate and feed on fruits such as apples (Malus domestica), pears (Pyrus communis) and grapes (Vitis vinifera). Irish Naturalists' Journal, 29(1):25-26. http://www.habitas.org.uk/inj/, Musser FR, Shelton AM, 2003. Several predators, including a few species of birds, true bugs and some other ladybirds, will feed on H. axyridis. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in apple orchards of eastern West Virginia and the impact of invasion by Harmonia axyridis. Multicoloured Asian Lady beetle. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), the third species of the genus to be found in the United States (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). In: Cornell Cooperative Extension - Insect Diagnostic Laboratory fact sheets, http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Extension/DiagnosticLab/IDLFS, Koch R L, Venette R C, Hutchison W D, 2006. Not only do H. axyridis cause blemishing to the fruit, but they are hard to remove from clusters of grapes and so get crushed during harvest and crop processing. H. axyridis contains toxic alkaloids and secretes these in reflex blood when attacked. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 29(1):104, Wang Su, Michaud JP, Zhang RunZhi, Zhang Fan, Liu ShuAng, 2009. H. axyridis is a polyphagous predator and as such has been used widely as a biological control agent of pest aphids and scale insects. However, a wide range of literature sources (Hironori and Katsuhiro, 1997; Cottrell and Yeargan, 1998; Phoofolo and Obrycki, 1998; Dixon, 2000; Lynch et al., 2001; Koch et al., 2003; Pell et al., 2008; Ware and Majerus, 2008; Ware et al., 2008) document that H. axyridis consume non-pest insects including: immature stages of many species of coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata, Adalia decempunctata, Calvia quatuordecimguttata, Coleomigilla maculata, Coccinella quinquepunctata, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella septempunctata brucki, Cyclomeda sanguinea, Eocaria muiri, Harmonia quadripunctata, Hippodamia variegata, Propylea japonica and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata); one nymphalid (Danaus plexippus) and one Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea). Lamana and Miller (1998) demonstrated that H. axyridis is well-adapted to winter temperatures below freezing and to summer temperatures of 30°C. There is an urgent need for detailed field studies to quantitatively document the interactions between H. axyridis and other species within the aphidophagous community. 13 (4), 61N-68N. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. The Far-Eastern ladybird against the apple aphid. Journal of Entomological Science, 35(2):150-157, Nalepa CA, Weir A, 2007. > 10°C, Cold average temp. New trapping methods for use in buildings and open fields could be developed, based on aggregative semiochemicals, but our current understanding of pheromonal and kairomonal communication by ladybirds and, specifically, H. axyridis, is still limited. An adult H. axyridis produces 20-50 eggs per day. (2007) highlighted the dramatic decline of Adalia bipunctata in North America after the arrival of H. axyridis and C. septempunctata. Extreme variation in the prevalence of inherited male-killing microorganisms between three populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For persistent aggregations in buildings Koch and Hutchison (2003) suggested exteriorly applying an insecticide such as a synthetic pyrethroid. Het is in Engeland voor het eerst waargenomen in 2004, en het komt voor in grote delen van Nederland en België. They are pale yellow when first laid, but progressively turn a darker yellow. National Biological Information Infrastructure, http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=668&fr=1&sts=, Nedved O, Háva J, 2016. En relación a su pigmentación, esta especie presenta polimorfismo en la coloración, es decir, tanto la coloración como el patrón de sus manchas se verán influenciados por la dieta y la temperatura ambiental; aunque también pueden haber variaciones según la estación del año. The invasion of H. axyridis causes concern for the populations of native ladybirds and other aphidophagous insects, which it may displace through intraguild predation and competition for resources. BioControl, 53(1):5-21. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853, Brown PMJ, Roy HE, Rothery P, Roy DB, Ware RL, Majerus MEN, 2008. Effects of various species of aphids as food on development, fecundity and longevity of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ciencia e Investigación Agraria. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk, Ongagna P, Giuge L, Iperti G, Ferran A, 1993. Research Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, No. Global Invasive Species Database: Harmonia axyridis. Menchetti M, Mori E, Ceccolini F, Paggetti E, Pizzocaro L, Cianferoni F, 2016. Geographical variation in ladybeetles. Guo JianYing, Zhou HongXu, Wan FangHao, Han ZhaoJun, 2007. 36 (6), 389-393. BioControl, 53(1):169-188. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853, Wells ML, McPherson RM, 1999. 40 (5), 116-122. The multicoloured Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control and non-target impacts. 29 (1), 25-26. http://www.habitas.org.uk/inj/, Nedvěd O, Háva J, 2016. Ahlen, Germany. Parasites and Vectors, 5(218):(1 October 2012). Map 689. Protezione delle Colture, No.3:26-27, Pell JK, Baverstock J, Roy HE, Ware RL, Majerus MEN, 2008. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 109:205, Majerus M, Kearns P, 1989.
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